INTAMBARA YA ISRAEL NA PALESTINE IMAZE IMYAKA 69 IKOMOKA HE?

INTAMBARA YA ISRAEL NA PALESTINE IMAZE IMYAKA 69 IKOMOKA HE?

Israel na Palestine, ibihugu bibiri bito byose bihuriye ku butaka bumwe, imyaka ishize ari 69 ubushyamirane bushingiye ku gutega ibisasu, kurasa ibisasu biremereye bya roketi bikorwa na Palestine kuri Israel n’ ibitero bya misile zambuka imipaka, ibitero by’indege n’ibimodoka by’intambara bigabwa na Israel kuri kuri Palestine, ngayo nguko ni uko ako gace ko mu Uburasirazuba bwo Hagati kirirwa, bukira bugacya.

Abasirikare ba Israel bahanganye n’Abanyepalistine

Mu 1956 ubushyamirane ku muyoboro wa Suez (Canal de Suez), aka na ko ni umuyoboro munini w’amazi wacukuwe na Ferdinand de Lesseps, utangira gukora mu 1869, ukaba uhuza inyanja ya Mediterane n’inyanja Itukura, uyu waje guteza amakimbirane bituma mu 1967 haba intambara y’iminsi itandatu.

Iyo ntambara yangiye tariki 5-10 Kamena 1967, impamvu yayo ni uko igihugu cya Misiri cyabujije ubwato bwa Israel kugera mu gace kitwa Tiran, itegeko ryashyizweho tariki ya 23 Gicurasi 1967. Ibi byarakaje Israel itangaza intambara, irwana n’ibihugu bitatu by’Abarabu aribyo Misiri, Yordaniya na Syria.

 

Mu gihe gito gusa kitarenze iminsi itandatu, Israel yari yamaze gusenya indege nyinshi n’ibikoresho bya gisirikare by’ibihugu yarwanaga na byo, Abarabu bamanika amaboko. Ibyo byaje gutuma Misiri itakaza agace ka Gaza n’Umwigimbakirwa wa Sinai (Sinai Peninsula), igihugu cya Syria cyatakaje ibisiza bya Golan na ho Yordaniya itakaza agace ka Cisjordanie n’igece cy’Umujyi wa kera wa Yeruzalemu y’Iburasirazuba (Jerusalem Est).

 

Ubuso bw’igihugu cya Israel bwikubye gatatu ndetse Israel ihita yiha ububasha bwo kugira Yeruzalemu umurwa mukuru wayo, nta bwumvikane bubayeho n’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga.

 

Mu 1973 haje kuba  intambara y’itiriwe umunsi mukuru wa “YOM KIPPUR”, uyu ukaba ari umunsi w’ikiruhuko muri Israel, bitewe n’inzika Syria na Misiri byari bifite ku bw’uduce byambuwe mu ntambara y’iminsi 6, ibi bihugu byagabiye ibitero icyarimwe ku buryo butunguranye ariko Israel ibasha kubyigaranzura ndetse inagaba ibitero imbere muri ibyo bihugu haza kubaho imishyikirano.

 

Mu 1982 intambara yeruye na Libani, guhera mu 1986 “intifada” ya mbere n’iya kabiri mu mwaka w’i 2000. “ Intifada” ni ntambara y’amabuye ikorwa n’Abarabu imbere y’ingabo kabuhariwe z’Abayahudi.

Abayahudi b’Abanyapalestine bapfa iki?

Mu Burasirazuba bwo Hagati, nyuma y’imyaka 2000 batagira gakondo, leta ya Israel yashinzwe ku butaka bwahoze ari ubwa Palestine, Abanyapalestine bikangura igihugu cyabo cyaciwemo kabiri, ariko bakomeza kwiringira ko ibihugu by’Abarabu bizabafasha kubohoza ubutaka bwabo.

Ubushyamiranye hagati ya leta ya Israel na leta ya Palestine na n’ubu itaremerwa ni imwe mu ntambara zirambye cyane, iki kibazo n’ubu gisa n’aho kitazabonerwa umuti yaba ejo cyangwa ejo bundi.

Impamvu 3 nyamukuru zizingiyeho amakimbirane y’ibi bihugu mu mateka

Urwango ruhambaye ku baturage b’Abayahudi rwakwirakwijwe mu batuye umugabane w’Uburayi guhera mu kinyejana cya 19 biturutse muri Pologne no mu gihugu cyUburusiya, mu byiswe kwamagana abimukira “Antisemitism”. Uru rwango rwaje gukwira umugabane w’Uburayi wose Abayahudi batangira guhohoterwa, abandi bakicwa.

Akarengane kakorewe Umuyahudi “Capitain Dreyfus” ubwo mu gihugu cy’Ubufaransa yahawe igihano cy’urupfu kitavuzweho rumwe, kaganishaje ku ngengabitekerezo yo gushaka uko Abayahudi bagira igihugu “Sionism”, ibyo mu Rwanda dukunze kuvuga ngo ‘Gusubira I Siyoni” cyangwa I “Yeruzalemu” gushinga igihugu cy’abayahudi nabo bakongera gutura mu butaka bw’abasekuru na ba sekuruza babo.

Umunyamakuru w’Umuyahudi, Theodor Herzl, yagize uruhare rukomeye mu gukwirakwiza amatwara y’iki gitekerezo, nyuma y’igitabo cye “Etat juif” nyuma y’imyaka isaga 2000, Abayahudi ubwabo ntibumvaga ko ari ibintu bishoboka, biciyemo ibice, bamwe bumva ishingwa rya Leta ya Israel ari ukwigerezaho abandi bumva ko ari igitekerezo kireba bene wabo mu idini rya “Judaism” bakemeza ko Judaism ari idini ariko ntaho bihuriye no gushinga leta.

Aho bavukiye mu bihugu by’Uburayi nko mu Bufaransa, mu Budage n’ahandi, niho bumvaga ko ariho igihugu cyabo, iby’ishingwa rya leta ya Israel ntibyari bibafasheho.

Mu ntambara ya mbere y’Isi, mu 1917 “Arthur Balfour” , wari Minister w’Intebe mu Bwongereza yasabye ko hashingwa agace kamwe gahurijemo Abayahudi muri Palestine, ariko byari kure mu gutekereza ku ishingwa rya leta ya Israel, ibi bikaba byari bikurikiye isenyuka ry’ubwami bw’aba “Ottoman”, (Turukiya) bwari bwarigaruriye Uburasirazuba bwo hagati.

Mu ntambara ya Mbere y’Isi, mu masezerano yakozwe mu ibanga mu 1916, Ubufaransa n’Ubwongereza bahise bigabanya ibihugu bagenzura, Ubwongereza bwifatira Palestine, Ubufaransa bufata Syria na Liban.

Izi ni zo impamvu eshatu z’amateka, zibumbiyemo urwango rwo guhangana gukomeye hagati y’Abarabu bakomoka muri Palestine n’Abayahudi bari barataye inkomoko bagakwira Isi yose cyane mu bihugu by’Uburayi nyuma bakaza kuremerwa leta ya Israel.

Amasezerano yo mu 1916 yatumye Abongereza n’Abafaransa bigarurira ibice byinshi byo mu Burasirazuba bwo Hagati, ariko icyemezo cya Balfour cyo gushinga ‘Foyer juif’ muri Palestine cyaje gutuma noneho Abayuhidi benshi batangira kwimukira muri Palestine, cyane cyane guhera mu 1930, ubwo urwango muri bo rwafataga intera ihambaye mu matwara ya “Hitler” n’Abanazi be, mu gihugu cy’Ubudage.

Abayahudi n’Abarabu batangiye guhangana, Ubwongereza bwahawe uburenganzira n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, ngo bukemure icyo kibazo mu maguru mashya.

Abayahudi bashakaga igice cyabo kigenga muri Palestine, Abarabu b’Abanyapalestine bari bahasanzwe ibi ntibabikozwaga. Mu 1947 Ubwongereza bwemeye ko icyo kibazo kiburenze, bugisubiza Umuryango w’Abibumbye ariko hari nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abayahudi mu bihugu byinshi by’Uburayi, ikozwe n’Abanazi ba Hitler.

Umuryango w’Abibumbye watangiye umugambi wo kugabanyamo Palestine ibihugu bibiri, icy’Abarabu kigakomeza kwitwa Pelestine, ikindi gice kigahabwa Abayahudi kitwa Israel.

Umujyi wa Yeruzalemu wo wari kugenzurwa n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, ibi Abayahudi barabyemeye ariko ako kanya ibihugu by’Abarabu bituranye na Israel bitera utwatsi icyo cyemezo.

Mu 1948 nibwo mandat y’Abongereza yari irangiye muri Palestine mu gihe cy’Ubukoloni (mandate yari uburenganzira ibihugu byahabwaga bwo kugenzura no kurebera ibindi bice).

Mandat y’Abongereza irangiye, ako kanya Abayahudi bahise batangaza ko bashinze Israel nk’igihugu cyigenga, Abanyepalestine bafashijwe n’ibihugu byose bikikije Israel, batangira intambara yeruye kuri Israel nshya.

Nyamara nubwo Israel yatuwe n’abaturage bari baramenenganiye i Burayi, yemewe nka leta mu gihe na n’ubu Palestine kidafatwa nk’igihugu cyigenga, ahubwo ibaho mu mitwe ya bamwe, nguko uko abenshi ku Isi bahagera bagasanga Palestine ihanganye na Israel mu Burasirazuba bwo Hagati kugeza ubu.

Mu byishimo byinshi by’Abayahudi I “Tel-aviv” ku itariki 14 Gicurasi 1948, David Ben Gurion wabaye Minisitiri wa mbere wa Israel yatangaje ku muragaro ishingwa rya Leta ya Israel, abatarabashije gukurikira ibirori imbona nkubone, babikurikirana kuri radio zabo.

David Ben Gurion yagize ati “Hagendewe ku mwanzuro w’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, bidasubirwaho dutangaje leta y’Abayahudi mu butaka bwa Israel.”

Aha nyuma y’ibinyejana 20, byari birangiye Abayahudi babonye igihugu babarizwamo, nyuma y’imyaka itatu gusa ubutegetsi bw’Abanazi buhirimye.

Mu ntambara ya kabiri y’Isi, mu myaka itatu Abayahudi bagera kuri miliyoni eshatu barishwe muri Jenoside yabakorewe, ingengabitekerezo n’urwango rukaba rwarongejwe umurego n’Abanazi.

 

Tariki ya 14 Gicurasi 1948,  umunsi Abayahudi bishimira ko babonye leta yabo, ku baturage b’Abarabu bari batuye muri Palestine bawita “Nakba”, bivuze umunsi mutindi, intangiro y’amakuba yataje ibihumbi byinshi mu miryango y’Abanyepalistine kwerekeza iy’ubuhungiro, benshi muri bo babuvukiyemo kugeza magingo aya.

Icyo gihe ibihumbi 700 by’Abarabu b’Abanyepalestine barirukanwe, bamwe bahunga intambara, ariko abandi bahambirizwa ku ngufu n’ingabo z’Abayahudi, abafashe iy’ubuhungiro, abenshi mu mitima bari bavuze ko bari kugaruka mu gihugu bita ko na bo ari iwabo, nyamara bari beshyaga, kuko benshi muri bo ubutaka bari batuyeho uwakwibeshya agakandagizamo ikirenge yagirirwa nabi bikomeye.

Abahunze bakiriho, kimwe n’abo babyaye, inzozi ni imwe, bizera ko umunsi umwe bazasubira muri Palestine yabo. Palestine bo bita ko ari Palestine, ariko ikitwa Israel mu Bayahudi ubu.

Abarabu b’Abanyepalestine n’Abayahudi bahanganye ku butaka bumwe mu myaka igiye gukabakaba 73. Intambara, ubugizi bwa nabi, imitwe y’iterabwoba, kwigumura kw’abaturage mu ntambara y’amabuye yiswe “ intifada” ibitero by’ubwiyahuzi, no guhora ku mpande zombi rimwe na rimwe hari igihe haba icyizere ko izo mvururu n’amakimbirane bizasozwa n’imishyikirano, ariko ryari?

Mu 1949, Israel imaze gushingwa, Abanyepalestine barirukanwe, abandi bahungira mu bihugu bituranye nka Libani, Syria.

Abanyepalestine berekejwe mu duce tubiri, “Cisjordania”, yagenzurwaga na “Jordania” na “Gaza” yagenzurwaga na “Misiri”, impunzi ntizagiye kure, zagumye hafi y’imipaka y’igihugu gishya cyari kimaze gushingwa ku butaka bwabo.

Umunsi ku wundi bibwiraga ko bucya bahita bataha, igitekerezo cyo kumva ko ubutaka bavukiyeho, nabo barazwe n’abasogokuruza babo, ingoma n’izindi, ibisekuruza bitabarika, bidashoboka ko bwatwarwa n’abandi na bo bavuga ko ari ubwabo. Ntibabyiyumvishaga, ariko uko imyaka itaha bagiye ba byumva neza ko baheze ishyanga nubwo inzozi zo gutaha ku ngufu, n’ubu zitigeze zibayoyokama.

Byageze mu 1967, mu nkambi zavukiyemo Abanyepalestine zarahindutse imijyi, urubyiruko rwavukiye muri iyi mijyi rwatojwe ko mu buzima bwabo bagomba guhangana n’Abayahudi bisubije igihugu Palestine, yiswe “Israel” ubu.

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